SCIENTIFIC REVIEWS

This is a special supplement on HPV disease and prevention authored by scientists and experts in the field that updates previous reviews (2008 and 2006). The supplement is presented as individual peer-reviewed articles on HPV as a major public health problem, including: HPV natural history and biology, HPV therapies, current screening strategies for cervical cancer including new technologies and prospects, prophylactic HPV vaccines and their introduction, economic analyses and gaps in knowledge.

Global prevention and management of human papillomavirus related diseases: the pressing challenges and the compelling opportunities. Foreword

Broker T Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:vii-vix.

The path to eliminate cervical cancer in the world and the challenges of professional education. Preface

Bosch FX Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:xi-xii.

Reframing cervical cancer prevention. Expanding the field towards prevention of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases

Bosch FX, Tsu V, Vorsters A, Van DP, Kane M Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F1-F11.

Global burden of human papillomavirus and related diseases

Forman D, de MC, Lacey CJ, Soerjomataram I, Lortet-Tieulent J, Bruni L, Vignat J, Ferlay J, Bray F, Plummer M, Franceschi Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F12-F23.

Updating the natural history of human papillomavirus and anogenital cancers

Moscicki AB, Schiffman M, Burchell A, Albero G, Giuliano AR, Goodman MT, Kjaer SK, Palefsky Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F24-F33.

Human papillomavirus and diseases of the upper airway: head and neck cancer and respiratory papillomatosis

Gillison ML, Alemany L, Snijders PJ, Chaturvedi A, Steinberg BM, Schwartz S, Castellsague Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F34-F54.

The biology and life-cycle of human papillomaviruses

Doorbar J, Quint W, Banks L, Bravo IG, Stoler M, Broker TR, Stanley M Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F55-F70.

Therapy of human papillomavirus-related disease

Stern PL, van der Burg SH, Hampson IN, Broker TR, Fiander A, Lacey CJ, Kitchener HC, Einstein M Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F71-F82.

Human papillomavirus vaccines--immune responses

Stanley M, Pinto LA, Trimble Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F83-F87.

Evidence regarding human papillomavirus testing in secondary prevention of cervical cancer

Arbyn M, Ronco G, Anttila A, Meijer CJ, Poljak M, Ogilvie G, Koliopoulos G, Naucler P, Sankaranarayanan R, Peto Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F88-F99.

Nucleic acid tests for the detection of alpha human papillomaviruses

Poljak M, Cuzick J, Kocjan BJ, Iftner T, Dillner J, Arbyn Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F100-F106.

New technologies and procedures for cervical cancer screening

Cuzick J, Bergeron C, von Knebel DM, Gravitt P, Jeronimo J, Lorincz AT, Meijer LM, Sankaranarayanan R, Snijders JF, Szarewski Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F107-F116.

Introduction of human papillomavirus DNA screening in the world: 15 years of experience

Castle PE, de SS, Qiao YL, Belinson JL, Lazcano-Ponce E, Kinney Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F117-F122.

A review of clinical trials of human papillomavirus prophylactic vaccines

Schiller JT, Castellsague X, Garland S Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F123-F138.

Human papillomavirus vaccine introduction--the first five years

Markowitz LE, Tsu V, Deeks SL, Cubie H, Wang SA, Vicari AS, Brotherton J Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F139-F148.

Understanding human papillomavirus vaccine uptake

Fisher W Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F149-F156.

Modeling preventative strategies against human papillomavirus-related disease in developed countries

Canfell K, Chesson H, Kulasingam SL, Berkhof J, Diaz M, Kim J Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F157-F167.

Human papillomavirus, human immunodeficiency virus and immunosuppression

Denny LA, Franceschi S, de SS, Heard I, Moscicki AB, Palefsky Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F168-F174.

Human papillomavirus and cancer prevention: gaps in knowledge and prospects for research, policy, and advocacy

Franco EL, de SS, Broker TR, Stanley MA, Chevarie-Davis M, Isidean SD, Schiffman Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F175-F182.

Upgrading public health programs for human papillomavirus prevention and control is possible in low- and middle-income countries

Steben M, Jeronimo J, Wittet S, LaMontagne DS, Ogilvie G, Jensen C, Smith J, Franceschi Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F183-F191.

Implementation of human papillomavirus immunization in the developing world

Kane MA, Serrano B, de SS, Wittet Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F192-F200.


This publication, Comprehensive cervical cancer control: a guide to essential practice (C4GEP), provides a comprehensive approach to cervical cancer prevention and control. In particular, it outlines the complementary strategies for comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control, and highlights the need for collaboration across programmes, organizations and partners. This new guide updates the 2006 edition and includes the recent promising developments in technologies and strategies that can address the gaps between the needs for and availability of services for cervical cancer prevention and control.

This position paper published in 2014 replaces the corresponding document published in April 2009. It focuses primarily on the prevention of cervical cancer, but also adresses the broader spectrum of cancers and other diseases preventable by HPV vaccination. The main difference from the previous paper concerns the number of doses of vaccine recommended for different age groups.

Volume 100 of the IARC Monographs, A Review of Human Carcinogens, covers all agents previously classified by IARC as "carcinogenic to humans (Group 1)".

This Volume 100B covers Human Papillomaviruses, among other Biological Agents. Each Monograph presents: i) a description of a carcinogenic agent and how people are exposed, ii) critical overviews of the epidemiological studies and animal cancer bioassays, and iii) a concise review of the agent's toxicokinetics, plausible mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and potentially susceptible populations, and life-stages. Details of the design and results of individual epidemiological studies and animal cancer bioassays are summarized in tables. Short tables that highlight key results are printed in Volume 100, and more extensive tables that include all studies appear on the Monographs programme website.


This ninetieth volume of the IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans considers human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which were evaluated by a previous Working Group (IARC, 1995).

Supplement on HPV disease and prevention authored by leading scientists and experts in the field. Updates the previous supplement (2006). The supplement is presented as individual peer-reviewed articles on HPV as a major public health problem, HPV natural history and biology, HPV therapies, current screening strategies for cervical cancer including new technologies and prospects, prophylactic HPV vaccines and their introduction, economic analyses and gaps in knowledge.

Human papillomavirus, cervical cancer prevention, and more

Lowy Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 10:iii-iv.

A scientific response to prevent cervical cancer in the world

Bosch FX Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 10:v-vi.

Epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus infections and type-specific implications in cervical neoplasia

Bosch FX, Burchell AN, Schiffman M, Giuliano AR, de SS, Bruni L, Tortolero-Luna G, Kjaer SK, Munoz Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 10:K1-K16.

Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection in men, cancers other than cervical and benign conditions

Giuliano AR, Tortolero-Luna G, Ferrer E, Burchell AN, de SS, Kjaer SK, Munoz N, Schiffman M, Bosch FX Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 10:K17-K28.

Overview of human papillomavirus-based and other novel options for cervical cancer screening in developed and developing countries

Cuzick J, Arbyn M, Sankaranarayanan R, Tsu V, Ronco G, Mayrand MH, Dillner J, Meijer C Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 10:K29-K41.

New technologies in cervical cancer screening

Gravitt PE, Coutlee F, Iftner T, Sellors JW, Quint WG, Wheeler C Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 10:K42-K52.

An update of prophylactic human papillomavirus L1 virus-like particle vaccine clinical trial results

Schiller JT, Castellsague X, Villa LL, Hildesheim Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 10:K53-K61.

Immunobiology of human papillomavirus infection and vaccination - implications for second generation vaccines

Stanley M, Gissmann L, Nardelli-Haefliger Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 10:K62-K67.

Early experience with human papillomavirus vaccine introduction in the United States, Canada and Australia

Shefer A, Markowitz L, Deeks S, Tam T, Irwin K, Garland SM, Schuchat Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 10:K68-K75.

Modeling cervical cancer prevention in developed countries

Kim JJ, Brisson M, Edmunds WJ, Goldie S Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 10:K76-K86.

Introduction of human papillomavirus vaccines into developing countries - international strategies for funding and procurement

Andrus JK, Sherris J, Fitzsimmons JW, Kane MA, Aguado M Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 10:K87-K92.


A special supplement on HPV disease and prevention authored by leading experts in the field. The supplement is presented as individual peer-reviewed articles on HPV as a major public health problem, HPV natural history and biology, HPV therapies, current screening strategies for cervical cancer including new technologies and prospects, prophylactic HPV vaccines and their introduction, economic analyses and gaps in knowledge.

Perspectives of contemporary papillomavirus research

zur H Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/iii-S3/iiv.

Preface. The field of cervical cancer prevention

Bosch FX Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/v-S3/vi.

Chapter 1: HPV in the etiology of human cancer

Munoz N, Castellsague X, de Gonzalez AB, Gissmann Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/1-S3/10.

Chapter 2: The burden of HPV-related cancers

Parkin DM, Bray Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/11-S3/25.

Chapter 3: HPV type-distribution in women with and without cervical neoplastic diseases

Clifford G, Franceschi S, Diaz M, Munoz N, Villa L Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/26-S3/34.

Chapter 4: Burden and management of non-cancerous HPV-related conditions: HPV-6/11 disease

Lacey CJ, Lowndes CM, Shah K Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/35-S3/41.

Chapter 5: Updating the natural history of HPV and anogenital cancer

Moscicki AB, Schiffman M, Kjaer S, Villa L Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/42-S3/51.

Chapter 6: Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of genital HPV infection

Burchell AN, Winer RL, de SS, Franco E Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/52-S3/61.

Chapter 7: Achievements and limitations of cervical cytology screening

Kitchener HC, Castle PE, Cox J Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/63-S3/70.

Chapter 8: Screening for cervical cancer in developing countries

Denny L, Quinn M, Sankaranarayanan Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/71-S3/77.

Chapter 9: Clinical applications of HPV testing: a summary of meta-analyses

Arbyn M, Sasieni P, Meijer CJ, Clavel C, Koliopoulos G, Dillner Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/78-S3/89.

Chapter 10: New dimensions in cervical cancer screening

Cuzick J, Mayrand MH, Ronco G, Snijders P, Wardle Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/90-S3/97.

Chapter 11: HPV vaccines: commercial research & development

Inglis S, Shaw A, Koenig Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/99-S3105.

Chapter 12: Prophylactic HPV vaccines: underlying mechanisms

Stanley M, Lowy DR, Frazer Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/106-S3/113.

Chapter 13: Current findings from prophylactic HPV vaccine trials

Koutsky LA, Harper D Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/114-S3/121.

Chapter 14: HPV vaccine introduction in industrialized countries

Wright TC, Van DP, Schmitt HJ, Meheus Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/122-S3/131.

Chapter 15: HPV vaccine use in the developing world

Kane MA, Sherris J, Coursaget P, Aguado T, Cutts Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/132-S3/139.

Chapter 16: HPV vaccines in immunocompromised women and men

Palefsky JM, Gillison ML, Strickler H Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/140-S3/146.

Chapter 17: Second generation HPV vaccines to prevent cervical cancer

Schiller JT, Nardelli-Haefliger Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/147-S3/153.

Chapter 18: Public health policy for cervical cancer prevention: the role of decision science, economic evaluation, and mathematical modeling

Goldie SJ, Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, Garnett G Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/155-S3/163.

Chapter 19: Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening

Goldie SJ, Kim JJ, Myers Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/164-S3/170.

Chapter 20: Issues in planning cervical cancer screening in the era of HPV vaccination

Franco EL, Cuzick J, Hildesheim A, de S Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/171-S3/177.

Chapter 21: Modelling the impact of HPV vaccines on cervical cancer and screening programmes

Garnett GP, Kim JJ, French K, Goldie S Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/178-S3/186.

Chapter 22: Assuring the quality, safety and efficacy of HPV vaccines: the scientific basis of regulatory expectations pre- and post-licensure

Wood D, Shin JH, Duval B, Schmitt H Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/187-S3/192.

Chapter 23: International Standard reagents for harmonization of HPV serology and DNA assays--an update

Pagliusi SR, Dillner J, Pawlita M, Quint WG, Wheeler CM, Ferguson Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/193-S3/200.

Chapter 24: Psychosocial aspects of vaccine acceptability

Zimet GD, Liddon N, Rosenthal SL, Lazcano-Ponce E, Allen Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/201-S3/209.

Chapter 25: Education, training, and communication for HPV vaccines

Sherris J, Friedman A, Wittet S, Davies P, Steben M, Saraiya Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/210-S3/218.

Chapter 26: Innovative financing mechanisms to accelerate the introduction of HPV vaccines in developing countries

Batson A, Meheus F, Brooke Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/219-S3/225.

Chapter 27: Research needs following initial licensure of virus-like particle HPV vaccines

Hildesheim A, Markowitz L, Avila MH, Franceschi Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/227-S3/232.

Chapter 28: Studies to assess the long-term efficacy and effectiveness of HPV vaccination in developed and developing countries

Lehtinen M, Herrero R, Mayaud P, Barnabas R, Dillner J, Paavonen J, Smith P Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/233-S3/241.

Chapter 29: Knowledge gaps and priorities for research on prevention of HPV infection and cervical cancer

Franco EL, Bosch FX, Cuzick J, Schiller JT, Garnett GP, Meheus A, Wright T Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/242-S3/249.

Chapter 30: HPV vaccines and screening in the prevention of cervical cancer; conclusions from a 2006 workshop of international experts

Wright TC, Bosch FX, Franco EL, Cuzick J, Schiller JT, Garnett GP, Meheus Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/251-S3/261.


Copyright © 2017 ICO/IARC Information Centre on HPV and Cancer | Disclaimer | Contact